President Joe Biden’s controlling order calling for a review of supply chains for analytical articles put a spotlight on the decades-long abatement in U.S. semiconductor accomplishment capacity. Semiconductors are the logic and memory chips used in computers, phones, vehicles, and appliances. The U.S. share of global semiconductor artifact is only 12%, down from 37% in 1990, according to the Semiconductor Industry Association.

It might not seem important that 88% of the semiconductor chips used by U.S. industries, including the automotive and aegis industries, are bogus alfresco the U.S. However, three issues make where they are made analytical to the U.S. as the global leader in electronics: lower capability, high global demand, and bound investment.

Lower capability

The accretion assurance by U.S. chip companies on all-embracing ally to assemble the chips they design reflects the United States’ beneath capability. U.S. semiconductor companies have 47% of the global chip sales market, but only 12% are bogus in the U.S. Meeting expectations for ever faster and smarter electronics requires chip design innovation, which, in turn, is abased on the most avant-garde artifact technologies available.

Advances in semiconductor artifact are based on the number of transistors, the aboriginal of a chip’s cyberbanking components, per square millimeter. The most avant-garde semiconductor artifact technologies and facilities, known as fabs, are labeled as 5 nanometers, or millionths of a millimeter. The number refers to the action rather than any accurate chip feature. Generally, the abate the nanometer rating, the more transistors per square millimeter, though it’s a complicated account with many variables. The accomplished transistor densities are about 100 actor per square millimeter.

Taiwan and Samsung in South Korea are developing 3-nanometer fabs while the U.S. does not yet have a 7-nanometer fab. Intel has appear that its 7-nanometer fab won’t be ready for assembly until late 2022 or early 2023. This leaves the U.S. after the means to make the most avant-garde chips.

[Read: How do you build a pet-friendly gadget? We asked experts and animal owners]

High global demand

With the pandemic, demand for cell phones, laptops, and other work-at-home accessories and added use of the internet have put burden on fabs to access the number of chips they are carrying for these products. The global automotive industry predicted that demand for cars would fall during the pandemic, so it bargain its orders for semiconductor chips used in agent safety, control, emissions, and driver advice systems. The auto industry has restarted assembly but is now faced with a curtailment of semiconductor chips.

Recently, eight state governors asked Biden to aggravate efforts “to urge wafer and semiconductor companies to expand assembly accommodation and/or briefly reallocate a modest allocation of their accepted assembly to auto-grade wafer production.” This “modest” reallocation cannot be done after causing shortages elsewhere. And it cannot be done quickly. For example, Taiwanese semiconductor giant TSMC has appear a six-month lead time from agreement an order to delivery, and bearing a chip is estimated to take up to three months.